Ini adalah contoh Action Research atau PTK (Penelitian Tindakan kelas) yang pernah saya buat waktu mengikuti matakuliah Research in English Education bersama Mr. Bambang M.Kartono di Universitas wiralodra tahun 2011 yang lalu.Rahasia Berpikir Positif
Silakan anda jadikan referensi, bukan untuk di copy paste semua, karena isinya pun belum tentu benar hehehe
Silakan anda jadikan referensi, bukan untuk di copy paste semua, karena isinya pun belum tentu benar hehehe
A. Background of Study
In Indonesia, English is one of the subjects that’s examined for graduation at the unit level of education both junior and senior high school level, Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 20 of 2003 states that in order to control the quality of national education evaluation as a form of accountability of education providers to the parties concerned. Further stated that the evaluation conducted by an independent institution on a regular basis, a thorough, transparent, and to systematically assess the achievement of national education standards and the monitoring process evaluation should be conducted on an ongoing basis. There are four subjects examination for junior high school and six for senior high school and one of them is English, in this situation students inevitably have to follow the standardization of government that required students to pass all subjects invariably.
General, learning English has been taught in all unit education. The average student has spent six years learning English from junior high school up to senior high school. some students have received extra English language education after regular school. Even so, but still, for most students learning English is the most difficult to understand, let alone when it's afraid to vigorously study it like it is difficult for the student, it is commonly found in country that use English as foreign language (EFL) not as daily communicative language, so in this case I will track the student's interest to the English language that will be the topic discussion of issues and their relevance to the achievement of the result of learning process, so that when the subject matter and has found the solution it is expected that there will be significant and sustainable development, students motivation and interest are generally influenced by various interrelated aspects ranging from family background, social class communities to environmental groups, including patterns of thought and interesting in something.
In this classroom action research would involve many participants and collaborate with other that have relevance and relationship with students, either directly or indirectly, I really hope it will obtain a complete data to answer problem related to students' interest and motivation towards learning English, the main reason for this action research is derived from real problem in the classroom (David Nunan:1992) and try to look comprehensive and integrated to find out correlation between motivation and students’ learning achievement.
B. Identification of Problem
Having define generally I consider to write the important identification of problem below:
1. Is the motivation has correlation towards students’ learning achievement?
2. How to develop students’ motivation in order to get better learning achievement?
3. What things are influence students’ achievement except motivation?
C. Limitation of Problem
In my action research study I use qualitative and quantitative approach, the target population all students in the class room (n=35) second grade social class in SMAN 1 Indramayu, there are many party that will be invited and engaged in this research because this research also all students exactly population like mentioned above will be considered culture of learning among them, such as students’ learning habit, pair group interaction, work ethic, and motivation for education will be examined. In addition the researcher (me) may affect data and interpretation conducting action research (Tomal:2003), therefore this research reduce the gap in language teachers’ taking action and developing appropriately language learning atmosphere affecting participants’ motivation to learn English in an EFL classroom.
D. Formulation of Problem
To guide my action research I make this following formulation study/question research:
1. What will the researcher and partners do to motivate students with low achievement in learning English?
2. How is the way to implement some model of cooperative learning instruction for EFL students?
3. Is students’ motivation be able to be as solution to fastest-rising achievement?
E. Purpose of Study
Based on the reason above, through this research I want to prove and find out correlation that the students’ motivation implication towards learning English and to help myself and other teachers to motivate students with low achieving in learning English or for EFL learner so that build up students’ motivation to be better in their learning achieving.
F. Significance of Study
Hopefully after this research the students are able to increase their motivation in learning English, and they be able to apply with learning together with his/her friend to arise self motivation to be better build the concept of themselves, hopes it can dig the student’s interest in English because the research try to find solution of the current problem.
In addition I hope students will be more attracted in learning English without under pressure feeling and forced from the teachers and or their parents, so they will be enjoy in learning English by increasing their motivation, and for the teacher, The teacher can motivate students to encourage their learning achievement through some models of problem solving, motivating and brainstorming technique. Teaching English will be easier to do if the students enthusiastic for learning English and feel fun, so, it is able to improve student’s interest.
The research result can be applied for all purposes English learning to increase student’s skill. It is not only for one teacher only but for all that has a similar problem in order to students be able to improving writing , speaking, listening, and reading skill.
For the institution motivation can help students in general to develop their English capabilities so the School (the institution) gets the achievements and prestige among the education institution. The research finding and build motivation so that improving students’ ability in increasing their achievement, hoped, it can be followed by another teacher in teaching learning English activity.
A. Learning habit
“Habits are safer than rules; you don't have to watch them. And you don't have to keep them, either. They keep you.” Dr. Frank Crane’s Four Minute Essays (1919), as the teacher and or researcher who willing to emphasize students to have enhancement motivation developing learning habit is important one to be focus on problem solving, every student has different habit each other, their habit has built since she/he was first elementary school, but not a little number that have improved and be better, the learning habit also be able be seen by students background, urban students has different motivation than the rural student motivation but this condition is not warranty, because if we talk about motivation all always begin from inside and environment, I do not know well which one that most dominant, depend on convergence joining two theory that students has motivation from him/her self but also can be stimulated from outside(Murip Yahya:2008), it has interrelation inside motivation and outside stimulation in building students’ learning habit and also learning achievement.
B. Rewards and Punishment
Desire can be define as a interest of people to do something, students who have interesting in learning language especially Learning English are became centre of watch to analyze, learning English for some of people are too difficult and may be so very frighteningly, other motivation theory mention that someone will do or not do because from outside stimuli like punish and reward, in classroom condition occasionally students are enjoy and feel fun when the teacher is friendly and often give an appreciation to the students, rewards are not always as gift or thing but appreciating and reinforcement to students also are meant as the rewards, but students also feel inconvenience if the teacher angry in classroom because of something that maybe caused students or maybe own problem (personal experience). Rewards as thing usually will build competitive atmosphere in the classroom if the teacher giving gift in good moment, but it also will make students to be sitting pretty to the smart student, all thing has negative and positive pint, but punish and reward are one of the way to build students motivation.
C. Students Centre and Teacher Centre Principle
Teacher-centered: Methods, activities, and techniques where the teacher decides what is to be learned, what is to be tested, and how the class is to be run. Often the teacher is in the center of the classroom giving instruction with little input from students. The teacher decides the goals of the class based on some outside criteria.
Taken also from Hsiao Thesis that in the collaborative learning environment, the teacher acts as facilitator; and students are expected to take responsibility for their own learning. Nokelainen, Miettinen, Kurhila, Floreen, and Tirri (2005) studied a shared document-based annotation tool to support the learner-centered collaborative learning approach. In their study the instructor gave an orientation to the topic through initial lectures and provided some information and sources for students to construct new knowledge. In contrast the cooperative learning approach is considered more a structured model by teachers, who closely monitor every stage in the completion of the task by students.
Johnson and Johnson (1988) clarified the teacher’s role in cooperative learning, stating that a teacher typically introduces the lesson and assigns students to groups. A teacher delivers resources or information so students complete their tasks within the time limit and also build a well-arranged and comfortable climate during the process of working on the task. Of course, the teacher is available to predict the final outcomes. In other words, the instructor possesses ownership and guides students during the learning process, practicing the teacher-centered principle.
Panitz (1996) also clarified the difference between collaborative and cooperative learning involving curriculum. He claimed that teachers adapt a collaborative learning approach for higher-level students instead of using a cooperative learning approach with first-stage learners. In other words, in a cooperative team, group members are given clear objectives and instructions by the teacher to show their abilities, reach desired goals, and run the task smoothly, especially for students without cooperative teamwork experience.
Comparison between Teacher centered and Learner-Centered Instruction
Focus is on instructor
Focus is on both students and instructor
Focus is on language forms and structures (what the instructor knows about the language)
Focus is on language use in typical situations (how students will use the language)
Instructor talks; students listen
Instructor models; students interact with instructor and one another
Students work alone
Students work in pairs, in groups, or alone depending on the purpose of the activity
Instructor monitors and corrects every student utterance
Students talk without constant instructor monitoring; instructor provides feedback/correction when questions arise
Instructor answers students’ questions about language
Students answer each other’s questions, using instructor as an information resource
Instructor chooses topics
Students have some choice of topics
Instructor evaluates student learning
Students evaluate their own learning; instructor also evaluates
Classroom is quiet
Classroom is often noisy and busy
Table 2.1 Comparison between students centered and teacher centered
D. Motivational Personality Development
The most influential humanist psychologist Abraham Maslow explained more about the relationship between motivation and personality development. Maslow’s (1970) hierarchy of needs was divided into five layers. The first or bottom layer includes physiological needs, and the second layer comprises the need for safety and security.
At the third level of Maslow’s hierarchy is the need for love and belonging, followed by the fourth-level, the need for esteem. At the top or fifth level is the need for self-actualization. Maslow contended that individuals will not pursue so-called “higher” needs until basic needs are fulfilled and satisfied. A student, for instance, who finds the study of English a frustrating experience, is unlikely to view the classroom as a secure and welcoming environment. Nevertheless, a teacher’s solicitous behavior can help to create a caring environment in which students are more likely to meet their basic emotional needs and move on to the higher needs reflected in academic achievement.
An exploration of Maslow’s (1970) hierarchy of human needs reveals that motivation is one of the primary determining factors in classroom success. R. C. Gardner (1985a) noted, “Attitude and motivation are important because they determine the extent to which the individual will actively involve themselves in learning the language” (p. 56). For the purpose of this study on student motivation in an EFL classroom learning community, various definitions of motivation have been outlined in the following section.
According to Oxford Dictionary fourth edition motivation, make somebody to do something and motivate itself is the reason why somebody does something (page 286), “motivation is encouragement from inside of people” (Mario Teguh:2010), the other said from Keller (1983) clarified four components of motivation—interest, relevance, expectancy, and outcomes in the educational theory of motivation. He cited “the choices people make as to what
experiences or goals they will approach or avoid and the degree of effort they will exert in that respect” (p. 389). H. D. Brown (1994) defined motivation as “the extent to which you make choices about goals to pursue and the effort you will devote to that pursuit” (page 34).
I consider that the motivation as the power of some body that influence to do or not to do something caused by interesting, passion, desire, and idea to achieve what he/she wants, and motivation will influence attitude, mental, think paradigm and many more
2. Motivation of Language Learning
As well-known that the main concept motivation has divided into intrinsic and extrinsic types: Deci and Ryan (1985) stated that people who are intrinsically motivated pursue given tasks for the sake of personal interest, satisfaction, and curiosity, not external pressure. Conversely, people who are extrinsically motivated pursue tasks for reasons that do not involve personal interest (page 35); outside motivation like rewards and punishments can stimulate for motivation in the process of completing a task. While psychologists have tended to divide motivation into two basic categories: expectation and value. Feather (1982) divided students motivation into expectancy and value models in a study of reading instruction in second-language education. From the expectation model, he explained that students are motivated to complete a task because of desired goals. By contrast the value model suggests that students tend to do (or not do) things because they evaluate the task as either valuable or without value. Furthermore, R. C. Gardner and Lambert (1972) distinguished between instrumental motivation (e.g., motivation inspired by the prospect of a new job or a promotion) and integrative motivation (e.g., motivation that is self-initiated) in examining learners’ behaviors and attitude performances. R. C. Gardner (1985a) defined motivation to learn the second language (L2) or the foreign language (FL) as the extent to which the individual works or strives to learn the language because of a desire to do so and the satisfaction experienced in this activity). Three components constitute this scholar’s definition of language-learning motivation: (a) making an effort to achieve a goal, which means motivational intensity, (b) the desire to learn the language, and (c) satisfying the task of learning the language.
According to Cambourne’s (1988) model of learning, he considered that learning is an engagement behavior through immersion, demonstration, expectations, responsibility, approximations, use, and response for learning development. Applying Cambourne’s model of learning to the EFL classroom, we can illustrate them in the following conditions.
In the immersion condition, teachers should create an EFL classroom in which a variety of English media are ready and prepared so that learners can see, touch, feel, and experience them. That means that students are living in the English-speaking environment which is built by the EFL teachers. In the demonstrations condition, it seems that teachers use scaffolding to engage students in learing development. For instance, once students understand how a reading task is done by observing teachers’ demonstrations, such as using in variety of “skim”, “scan”, and “context clues” approaches for an unfamiliar word before reaching for the dictionary, students will be able to use those developing skills when reading to comprehend by themselves. In the expectations condition, teachers should give positive expectations and responses to the students so that they are not afraid to make mistakes but are willing to challenge them until the approximation errors begin to decline and to take responsibility for their own learning. Once students are immersed in this model of classroom learning, they will engage in learning development, spinning of Hsiao-san Chen’s paper (page 51).
3. The Correlation Between Motivation and Learning Language Achievement
These are completely taken from Hsiao-san Chen’s paper. “A series of studies have been conducted to investigate the role of motivation in FL learning in Taiwan. For instance, C.-L. Wang, (2005), studied 33 eighth graders, exploring the effects of learning motivation in the EFL classroom and finding a significant correlation between motivation and achievement. C.-L. Chen’s (2005) study of 762 students from eight junior high schools in the Yunlin region of Taiwan revealed that school type, gender, the number of years of learning English affect students’ motivation to learn. Liao (2000) administered three questionnaires to eighth graders at a junior high school in central Taiwan, discovering that they lacked the motivation to learn English and tended to be extrinsically motivation. In actuality intrinsic motivation is the major factor in successful learning and inspires students to accomplish long-term learning goals. Ironically, Taiwanese students tend to learn English because they want to compete with others or pass the Joint Entrance Examination.
S.-C. Chu et al. (1997) studied the attitudes of unmotivated students attending an EFL class in a 5-year college in Taiwan, finding that 75.3% of the students felt bored in EFL class; 73.5% students considered the English textbook too difficult, impractical, and unattractive. Over half these students, 56.4%, complained of too many paper-and-pencil tests and lectures in their EFL class. K.-S. Tsi (2003) completed a valuable statistical analysis on 130,000 Taiwanese high school students writing a College Entrance Examination in English composition on the topic of the difficulties with learning English.
Students said that (a) limited vocational hindered reading comprehension; (b) limited oral and listening abilities resulted in the incorrect pronunciation of words; (c) these factors caused them to fear speaking English; (d) they were rarely given the chance to speak with native speakers of English; (e) writing presented another barrier even for students who had had years of English studies; (f) boredom and lack of interest in attending English class posed problems for teachers; (g) they felt discouraged when their English test scores always fell below average. A few students responded bluntly: “I hate my English teacher.” In other words, items (a) through (e) above illustrate students’ difficulty with listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills, motivating us to seek better teaching strategies. In summary, the correlations between attitudinal and motivational factors in L2 or FL learning play an important role. R. C.
Gardner and Lambert (1972) found that attitudes and motivation exert a strong effect on language achievement. In other words, positive learning attitude affect learners’ progress in new-language acquisition”. Clearly that motivation bring big influence towards students’ learning achievement, many reason expose above from Hsiao-Chen, begin from learning English only for collective register in some college and or high school, difficult to understand English text book, the unattractive teacher, seldom have a chance to speak with native, I consider this reason has similar case in Indonesia, because Taiwan and Indonesia are learning English as foreign language so they will find some similar problem.
4. The Role of Teachers
Quoted from Hsiao-Chen, Several studies have shown that the behavior of teachers or supporting in learning process an important factor in facilitating the students' motivation to learn. First, the students absorbing performance of teachers in terms of praise or criticism were received of teachers (Graham & Weiner, 1987). For example, students gain praise such as "Great! You did a good job" or blame as "You are wrong "Indeed, teachers should give more credit to the students to demonstrate care, attention, and encouragement, for example, "I hope you can further enhance your skills" At the same time, teachers need to explain to students that they have to try hard, if not, they can fail.
Second, teachers should help students to deal with their frustrations by giving them the right help, many examples, or personal experiences that they struggling students can turn failure into success. For example, students may complained of too much or difficult task, the teacher should let them know task will help them gain more experience with this subject (C.-S. Wu, 1990). Teachers should provide a clear and simple directions with step-by-step guidance, which can greatly enhance students' academic outcomes.
Third, teachers should encourage students to use learning strategies work for them so they can find the best way to solve their problems while facing challenge or a difficult task. In addition, teachers must establish a student-centered instruction so that students can make their own decisions: Students may participate in choose the topics they want to pursue the depth, or they may suggest teaching methods to be used to maximize their understanding of the lesson.
A. Method of Research
Method of research in my proposal is using action research, what is action research? Action research is a research tool that potentially facilitates growth and change in an individual or a group during the research process (Reason, 2004). A number of scholars have explored the action research method and its application. Arhar, et al. (2001); McNiff, Lomax, and Whitehead (1996); Stringer (1996); and Winter (1996) have indicated first that action research is closely linked with theory
and practice as well as reflection. According to the preface to Hwang, Chen, and Yan’s (2002) Chinese version of Action Research for Teachers: Traveling the Yellow Brick Road by Arhar et al. (2001), action research serves as a bridge that the practitioner–researcher can use to connect research theory (the theoretical) and practical action (the empirical).
Second, action research closely links researchers and research participants, including colleagues, students, or administrators, to form a cooperative working community. During the process of action research, teachers should listen to their students’ thoughts and feedback to acquire useful data. Action research resembles cooperative teamwork because it connects the teacher-as-researcher, students, and colleagues (Arhar et al., 2001) to practice educational improvement.
Third, action research closely links personal growth and professional development in order to change the researchers themselves, institutions, or society. When teachers conduct their studies, they perform as primary researchers and practitioners; their research issues emerge from their own concerns about what has occurred in their classrooms and among their students (Burns, 1999). The process of action research derived from teachers’ engaging in meaningful reflection and discussion with colleagues. In other words, its benefit lies not only in the enhancement of the professional growth of teachers but also in the improvement of the education of students (Wallace, 1998).
B. Place And Time of Research
The place of this research will be hold in SMAN 1 INDRAMAYU, second grade of social class and it takes 35 students in its classroom, generally there are three time English subject regular in classroom, each meeting 2 x 45 minutes, so in a week 270 minutes or about 4 hours and 30 minutes, my research will take about 4 week to observe and ask personal review (Michael J Wallace) from English teacher who teach in that classroom and I will invite them to be engaged in my research.
C. Procedure of Research
An action research in my study is going to two cycle, each cycle belong to four steps, identify problem or diagnosing problem, plan action, action of research, evaluation. That are procedure of research, and I also make mind concept of research detailed with four phase that will engage participants in my study.
The first steps: Problem identify, the purpose of problem identify is to understand why students being lower learning motivation and attitudes in their English subject. From this steps I should get main problems of students motivation.
The second one: plan action, arrange concept what will I do in my research? It is include arrange interview, motivation questionnaire before and after study, checklist likert scale, qualitative data coding and descriptive data statistics.
Thirds: action, doing and action research, it is going to spend four week or a month, collaborative research me and other teacher to give advice and data about students in that class by giving checklist observation from teacher and also personal review.
Last: evaluate, after all research and study has been hold, I need help from other party to evaluate gathering about my research, then I need second cycle to confirm and get best answer of the problem, so from twice cycle of action research I hope I can obtain fix answer.
For more understanding my action research procedure see on the figure below:
Figure 3.1 Research procedure
D. Population and Sample
The 35 students in this research, they belong to male and female students, the number of 35 is an estimation in one classroom of social class, exactly second grade social class, so why I choose social class? Because I consider that open-minded concept from social and exact class, I am not favoritism one to each other, but problem of motivation is often undergone by social class whereas they should have good motivation in learning English because they will use it in real job opportunity like a accounting or the other that has correlation with social class, one of subject in social class is Sosiologi, so if the social students cannot interact one each other especially with people from other country it will make them got big question than exact class which is no Sosiologi subject.
For this study I use instrument that has two approach, qualitative and quantitative approach, instruments for qualitative are:
Interview: beside using questionnaire I also interview them for knowing their motivation and their desire in learning English and relate their answer switch to result of previous semester so will be found first answer and knowing directly from students
An example for interview question below:
1. When you first time learn English?
2. Do you like English?
3. How often do you read English book or other literature? etc
Questionnaire: this method using through survey model provides some basic, my survey style combine between Likert Scale and question survey, Likert scale that provided question has a range 1 up to 5 point to give honest answer about students motivation and his/her ability in English, each point has weight from 1-5with value; poor, low, average, good, strong / Excellence. hopefully this method obtain real answer from participants,
.Likert Scale like below:
1. How do you like English 1 2 3 4 5
2. Are you speak fluently 1 2 3 4 5
3. How is your reading ability 1 2 3 4 5
4. How is your listening ability 1 2 3 4 5
5. How is your writing ability 1 2 3 4 5
6. How about your desire learning English 1 2 3 4 5
7. Willing to improving English skill 1 2 3 4 5
Checklist: the teachers and English teacher will be engaged into this research by giving personal review ( Wallace:1980) and observation checklist as gather obtaining research, personal review will be written by the teacher based on checklist observation and telling more explanation about the points that has been given, so that to complete all research as consideration in research finding, and it also will be evaluated into twice cycle.
F. Data Analysis and Interpretation Technique
The technique to analyze data is by using two approaches, interpretive approach and statistic approach, for qualitative approach are like below:
Interview: Patton (1990) claimed that the strategies for analyzing interviews should begin with individual case analysis, then cross-case analysis. I used an inductive approach to develop coding categories by reading through individual students’ interview notes repeatedly, and certain patterns presented to inform my inquiry to the study. The inductive approach provides a systemic set of procedures for analyzing qualitative data that can produce reliable and valid findings (Thomas, 2006). I paid considerable attention to analyzing different answers from different people to common questions throughout this study.
Observation checklists. Observation was one of the common ways for this researcher to provide more practical and richer information for the action research study (Tomal, 2003). I noted individual students’ behaviors on the observation checklists, making a tally mark and computing the mean score so that accurate numerical responses were clarified. For example, half the students worked on an assignment for another class or slept in the EFL classroom. The observation checklists were used each time the researcher reviewed the video recording and completed the observation checklists. In addition, two EFL teachers also helped fill out the observation checklists when they occasionally visited the researcher’s class with totally three times. Finally, I identified the most frequent behaviors and then made analysis and interpretation.
Personal Review: for analyzing data, I also write daily observation about review classroom condition in daily activity in the classroom, this is a sign of the action research, answering problem by describing condition of the subject, and look holistic problem so that get answer as well as and real applicable into classroom, this research also giving treatment to the subject in order to improving their motivation, it will be described in quantitative approach.
This research are gathering two combination, so it needs statistic analysis, in my study need to know about correlation between motivation and students achievement so it uses t-test with quantitative approach, like below:
Quantitative approach In the quantitative approach, the results of the t-Test on students’ pretest and posttest motivation questionnaires and repeated-measures analysis of variance for comparing all subjects measured during different testing times were analyzed quantitatively, this is using formula;
: value t observation or t count
: difference mean count result
S : standard deviation
In this study, the t-Test can be used to determine differences in students’ motivation to learn English and performance before and after the instruction. In the first step, data were counted according to participants’ responses to 35 items. Mean and standard deviation were presented by running the t-Test. In this way, the researcher analyzed the results to determine any significant differences with respect to survey responses before and after instruction.
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Hsiao-san Chen. 2008. Thesis Motivation Issues of Taiwanese Vocational High School Students in English as Foreign Language Classroom: an Action Research Study. Kent State University.
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Schmidt, Richard, Boraie, Deena, & Kassabgy, Omneya. (1996). Language Learning Motivation: Pathways to the New Century. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i.
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